Microcontrollers and basic bit-level operations

Why it’s so important to know how it works? Well, if you’re making a software for microcontrollers you have to use it in many places in the code to for example manipulate table of processor registers. It also helps to make the program smaller, much faster and allows to perform neat tricks (this isn’t always … Read more

ESP32 – quick overview

The ESP32 is a low cost, low power microcontroller with integrated 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi (up to 150Mbps) and dual-mode Bluetooth (classic and BLE), which employs a dual-core Tensilica Xtensa LX6 microprocessor. ESP32 is created and developed by Espressif Systems, a Shanghai-based Chinese company, and is manufactured by TSMC using their 40 nm process. It is … Read more

Microcontrollers and pull-up / pull-down resistors

In case of GPIOs of microcontrollers, a pull-up resistor is a resistor connected between a signal conductor and a positive power supply voltage while a pull-down resistor is a resistor connected between a signal conductor and a ground. They are used on inputs to prevent floating lines, rapidly switching between high and low and a middle … Read more

What is Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ?

Serial peripheral interface (SPI) is a hardware/software communication protocol originally developed by Motorola and widely used by others in the industry. SPI is quite straightforward – it defines how to communicate in easy way between 2 digital devices – i.e. between AVR and devices, like other AVRs, external EEPROMs, DACs, ADCs, etc. SPI is a single-master … Read more

AVR MCU Architecture

The AVR architecture is a huge topic in itself. I will just provide a general picture of how the AVR microcontroller works. The AVR uses a Harvard architecture thus it has separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is … Read more

What is an AVR Microcontroller ?

The AVR is a modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontroller. The AVR was developed by Atmel in 1996 and was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for program storage. The AVR microcontoller is like a small computer – includes a CPU, some flash program memory, some SRAM and some … Read more